Habitats

Page under construction



Butterflies are flying machine. They travel a long distance in search of nectar plants, larval host plants and mating. Some migrates from one country to another or long distance. In the country most of the species are found throughout the country. Few are restricted in northeast and southeast regions. However, widely distributed found both in plain land and  hills.


Mixed evergreen forests (Hill forests):




Bangladesh have large patch of mixed evergreen forests, situated in the northeast and southeast regions in Chittagong and Sylhet divisions. It has an area of 0.55 million ha. (Khan 2008). Himchari Bational Park,



Mixed evergreen forests of Sylhet division:

Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary: It is a protected area supported mixed tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of great biodiversity value. Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary covering a total area of 1796 ha. Considering its biodiversity values and conservation needs, the government declared a part of the Reserved Forest as the Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary in 1982 and further expanded the sanctuary area through another declaration in 1996. It belongs to the Chunarughat Upazila under Habigonj District, which is located nearly east-northeast of Dhaka and approximately south-southwest of Sylhet city. Its gps co-ordinate is 24011.106´ N 91037.484´ E (Uddin et al. 2002; Feeroz et al 2011; Shihan & Prodhan 2014). The sanctuary encompasses several hills of different elevations and the low-lying valleys. The highest peak of the hills is about 67 m from the sea level. There are a series of ridges of the hills running in different directions, and valleys locally and composed of Upper tertiary rocks (Ahmad 1970; Rizvi 1970). The forests of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary are very rich biologically, located as they are in the high rainfall bio-geographic zone with evergreen and semi-evergreen forests. The Wildlife Sanctuary represents several features of the bio-diversity of the north-eastern subcontinent, which is one of the mega biodiversity regions with many floral endemic species. Many important rivers, including Surma and Kushiara flow through the forest division, forming fertile floodplains with enhanced economic activity and high population density. The climate of the Sanctuary is in generally warm and humid but, the weather is cool and pleasant during winter (Nishorgo 2006).



Satchari National Park: It was established in 2005 to preserve the remaining natural hill forest patch of Raghunandan Hill Reserve Forest, an area of 243 hectares. However, the total area of Satchari Wildlife Range is about 1,760 hectares (IPAC 2009). The park is situated in the Paikpara Union of Chunarughat Upazila in the district of Habigonj. The reserve forest is under the jurisdiction of Satchari Wildlife Range, which is part of the Wildlife Management and Nature Conservation Division of the Forest Department. The park is divided into two administrative sectors known as forest beats, namely Satchari Forest Beat and Telmachara Forest Beat. Satchari National Park stands on the old Dhaka-Sylhet Highway and is about 130-140 kilometers northeast of Dhaka, between Teliapara and Srimongal. The forest area is undulating with scattered slopes and hillocks (tilla) ranging from ten to fifteen meters in height. The forest is drained by a number of small streams with sandy beds (Sultana 0000)







Lawachara National Park: It is a mixed evergreen forest. The forest is covered mainly by indigenous vegetation. A few exotic plants, herb, shrubs, creepers and climbers are also present in this broadleaf forest (Larsen, 2004). These vegetation support a large diversity of butterflies (Khandokar et al. 2013)



Mixed evergreen forests of Chittagong division:

Kaptai National Park: It (22 030.08´ N latitude and 92 016.02´ E longitude) is located in the Kaptai sub-district under Rangamati district on the south-eastern part of Bangladesh. It has an area of 5464.8 hectares and is 1600 ft. high from sea level (Nishorgo 2007). It is one of the major butterfly habitats in this country and almost all butterfly families available in Bangladesh are seen in this park and the total number of butterfly species exceeds 200 in the forest areas, although the actual count of species is still incomplete. These forests and plantations areas maintain a considerable number of trees, vines, climbers, hedges, shrubs, brushes and grasses. The rich plant diversity of this park provides many suitable niche areas for butterflies (Bashar 2014).






Deciduous forest (Sal forests):


Sal forest are found in Bhawal National Park and Madhupur Forest. Many common butterflies with some exception are found here.




Mangrove forest (Sundarban):
Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world. This mangrove forest is unique for its biodiversity, which is characterized by a wide range of flora and fauna. The faunal composition of the Sundarbans consists of a variety of wild animals namely the tigers, deer, wild boars, monkeys, otters, variety of birds, crocodiles, various snakes including python, lizards, amphibians, mollusks, crabs and so on. Besides, it has been an important habitat for many invertebrate fauna including butterflies (Chaudhuri 1994; Hussain & Acharya 1994, IUCN 2001; Khan 2004; Islam & Wahab 2005; Hossain 2014). Sundarbans mangrove forest is very rich in honey producing plants which attract large number of birds and insects including butterflies. The major plant species include khulshi (Algeciras corniculatum), goran (Ceriops decandra), baen (Avicennia officinalis), keora (Sonneratia apetala and S. acida), gewa (Excoecaria agallocha) and passur (Xylocarpus mekongenesis). In addition, there are many herbs, shrubs and climbers such as baoli lata (Sarcolobus globosus), asam lata (Mikania scandens), swarpogandha (Aristolochia sp.), dodhi lata (Tylophora indica), akond (Calotropris procera), wedellia (Wedelia chinensis, W. biflora), khulsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), hargoza (Acanthus illicifolius) and Ipomoea (Ipomoea illustris) which are also good attractants for various butterflies, particularly for nectar collection and egg laying. In the mangrove forest there is a few place of complete grassy lands, i.e. meadows that covers the wider areas from Katka to Kachikhali which is an ideal place for the butterfly. However, most of the butterflies found in this mangrove forest are in general periodic visitors that come from nearby places (Hussain & Acharya 1994; Larsen 2004; )



Scattered homestead forests: